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The data behind child abuse
One in five adults aged 18 to 74 years experienced at least one form of child abuse, whether emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, or witnessing domestic violence or abuse, before the age of 16 years (8.5 million people), according to the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW)
In addition, an estimated 1 in 100 adults aged 18 to 74 years experienced physical neglect before the age of 16 years (481,000 people); this includes not being taken care of or not having enough food, shelter or clothing, but it does not cover all types of neglect.
An estimated 3.1 million adults aged 18 to 74 years were victims of sexual abuse before the age of 16 years; this includes abuse by both adult and child perpetrators.
Prevalence was higher for females than males for each type of abuse, with the exception of physical abuse where there was no difference.
Many cases of child abuse remain hidden; around one in seven adults who called the National Association for People Abused in Childhood’s (NAPAC’s) helpline had not told anyone about their abuse before.
It is important that the hidden nature of childhood abuse is addressed through better research and data. A good example of this was the Office of National Statistics (ONS) publishing its inaugural report solely about child abuse on 14 January 2020. The report provides an overview of child abuse in England and Wales and for the first time brings together a range of different data sources from across government and the voluntary sector, including anonymised data from NAPAC’s support line service. The full report can be found here – ONS report Child abuse in England and Wales: January 2020
In 2019 NAPAC answered 8,658 calls on our support line and replied to hundreds of support emails. There were 62,840 call attempts to NAPAC’s support line during this period. The charity has just 12 staff and around 20 volunteers., we would expand our service if we had resources to do so.
NAPAC trained around 850 professionals in 2019 including counsellors, police, probation officers, GPs, safeguarding leads, community psychiatric nurses, prison healthcare staff and social workers.
The Centre of Expertise on Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been established to help bring about significant and system-wide change in how child sexual abuse is responded to locally and nationally. More information can be found at its website here – CSA Centre
Traumatic life experiences can have a significant impact on people’s lives, increasing the risk of poorer physical and mental health and poorer social, educational and criminal justice outcomes. Trauma informed systems can have better outcomes for people affected by trauma (NHS Education for Scotland, May 2017).
ONS (Office of National Statistics) Abuse during childhood: Findings from the Crime Survey for England and Wales, year ending March 2016 crime survey.
ONS Crime Survey, March 2016
Radford, L. et al (2011) Child abuse and neglect in the UK today NSPCC
Sneddon, H., Wager, N., Allnock, D. Responding sensitively to survivors of childhood abuse University of Bedfordshire with Victim Support, April 2016. Responding sensitively to survivors of childhood abuse
NHS Education Scotland. National Trauma Training Framework – a trauma informed approach
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in Wales – ACEs and their impact on health-harming behaviours in the Welsh adult population 13 January 2016
Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Resilience Report by Public Health Wales, 18 January 2018. People who have experienced abuse, neglect and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as living with domestic violence during their childhood are at much greater risk of mental illness throughout life, but community support can offer protection. Sources of resilience and their moderating relationships with harms from adverse childhood experiences
Allnock, D and Miller, P. (2013) No one noticed, no one heard NSPCC
Lampard, K. and Marsden, E. (2015) Themes and lessons learned from NHS investigations into matters relating to Jimmy Savile Independent report for the Secretary of State for Health
Children’s Commissioner (November 2015) Protecting children from harm: a critical assessment of child sexual abuse in the family network in England and priorities for action
Ainscough, C. and Toon, K. (2000) Breaking Free Workbook – Practical help for survivors of child sexual abuse Sheldon Press, London. (For suggestions of individual and group exercises).
Gilbert, P. and Proctor, S. Compassionate Mind Training for People with High Shame and Self Criticism: Overview and Pilot Study of a Group Therapy Approach in Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 13, 353-379 (2006) Wiley (free to download at http://self-compassion.org/wp-content/uploads/publications/Gilbert.Procter.pdf )
Herman, J.L. (1992) Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence. New York, Basic Books
Mendelsohn, M. et al, (2011) The Trauma Recovery Group: A Guide for Practitioners, New York, The Guildford Press
van der Kolk, B. (2014) The Body Keeps the Score, Penguin Books
Winnicott, D.W (2000, first published in 1964) The Child, the Family and the Outside World Penguin Psychology